The Twelve Essays of Christmas: Ring/Rang/Rung

Almost every english verb 'generates' five forms, so to speak. For example:

1) The bells ring today.
2) The bell rings today.
3) The bells rang yesterday.
4) The bells have rung already.
5) The bells are ringing now.


Except 2 and 5 are always regularly derived (when they exist) from 1 by adding suffixes, so you could be justified in saying there's only three forms. Plus, numbers 3 and 4 are usually just number 1 plus an '-ed'.

But when they're not, it's called an irregular verb.

So, how may irregular verbs are there in english? The answer is: probably about 200, of which about 100 are common, but it depends.

It depends on whether you consider 'underdo' and/or 'overdo' and/or 'redo' to be separate verbs from 'do'. The same for 'spoil' and 'despoil', 'throw' and overthrow'. It depends whether you consider 'dreamed' and 'dreamt' to be equally valid past forms of 'dream'. And the same for 'pleaded' and 'pled'.

What about 'arise/arose/arisen' and 'rise/rose/risen' - are they separate entries in the list, or is the former merely an archaic variation in the latter? Just became some native speakers say 'quitted' or 'knowed', do you include these past forms as viable alternatives to 'quit' and 'knew'?

I've taken two purportedly complete lists of english irregular verbs, plus one which claims to be of the 70 most common, and combined them with my own dubious intuitions. Here's the result.

Column 1 is the 'infinitive' or base form, two is the preterite or past, and three is the past participle or passive participle, according to your preferred nomenclature. The 70 most common are in bold.

arisearosearisen
awakeawokeawoken
bewas/werebeen
bearboreborn/borne
beatbeatbeat/beaten
becomebecamebecome
beginbeganbegun
bendbended/bentbended/bent
besetbesetbeset
betbetted/bet/betted/bet
bidbid/badebid/bidden
bindboundbound
bitebitbitten
bleedbledbled
blowblewblown
breakbrokebroken
breedbredbred
bringbroughtbrought
broadcastbroadcasted/broadcastbroadcasted/broadcast
buildbuilded/builtbuilt
burnburned/burntburned/burnt
burstburst/burstedburst/bursted
buyboughtbought
cancould[been able to]
castcasted/castcasted/cast
catchcaughtcaught
choosechosechosen
clingclungclung
comecamecome
costcostcost
creepcreptcrept
cutcutcut
dealdealed/dealtdealed/dealt
digdugdug
divedived\dove/dived
dodiddone
drawdrewdrawn
dreamdreamed/dreamtdreamed/dreamt
drinkdrankdrunk
drivedrovedriven
eatateeaten
fallfellfallen
feedfedfed
feelfeltfelt
fightfoughtfought
findfoundfound
fitfitfit
fleefledfled
flingflungflung
flyflewflown
forbidforbade\forbadforbidden
foregoforewentforegone
foretellforetoldforetold
forgetforgotforgotten
forgiveforgaveforgiven
forsakeforsookforsaken
freezefrozefrozen
getgotgot/gotten
givegavegiven
gowentbeen/gone
grindgroundground
growgrewgrown
hanghanged/hunghanged/hung
havehadhad
hearheardheard
hidehidhidden
hithithit
holdheldheld
hurthurthurt
keepkeptkept
kneelkneltknelt
knitknitted/knitknitted/knit
knowknewknown
laylaidlaid
leadledled
leapleaped/leaptleaped/leapt
learnlearned/learntlearned/learnt
leaveleftleft
lendlended/lentlended/lent
letletlet
lielaylain
lightlighted/litlighted/lit
loselostlost
makemademade
meanmeantmeant
meetmetmet
misspellmisspelled/misspeltmisspelled/misspelt
mistakemistookmistaken
mowmowedmowed/mown
paypaidpaid
pleadpleaded/pled/pleaded/plead
proveprovedproved/proven
putputput
quitquitquit
readreadread
ridridrid
rideroderidden
ringringed/rangringed/rung
riseroserisen
runranrun
sawsawedsawed/sawn
saysaidsaid
seesawseen
seeksoughtsought
sellsoldsold
sendsentsent
setsetset
sewsewedsewn/sewed
shakeshookshaken
shaveshavedshaved/shaven
shearsheared/shoresheared/shorn
shedshedshed
shineshoneshone
shoeshoed/shodshoed/shod
shootshotshot
showshowedshowed/shown
shrinkshrankshrunk/shrunken
shutshutshut
singsangsung
sinksanksunk
sitsatsat
slayslewslayed/slain
sleepsleptslept
slideslid/slidedslid/slided
slingslungslung
slitslit/slittedslit/slitted
smellsmelt/smelled/smelt/smelled
smitesmotesmitten
sowsowedsowed/sown
speakspokespoken
speedsped/speededsped/speeded
spellspelt/spelled/spelt/spelled
spendspentspent
spillspilt/spilled/spilt/spilled
spinspunspun
spitspatspat
splitsplit/splittedsplit/splitted
spoilspoilt/spoiled/spoilt/spoiled
spreadspread/spreadedspread/spreaded
springsprang/sprungsprung
springsprangsprung
standstoodstood
stealstolestolen
stickstuckstuck
stingstungstung
stinkstankstunk
stridestrodestridden
strikestruckstruck
stringstrungstrung
strivestrovestriven
swearsworesworn
sweepsweptswept
swellswelledswelled/swollen
swimswamswum
swingswungswung
taketooktaken
teachtaughttaught
teartoretorn
telltoldtold
thinkthoughtthought
thrivethrived/throvethrived
throwthrewthrown
thrustthrustthrust
treadtrodtrodden
understandunderstoodunderstood
upholdupheldupheld
upsetupsetupset
wakewokewoken/waked
wakewokewoken
wearworeworn
weaveweaved/woveweaved/woven
wedwedded/wed/wedded/wed
weepweptwept
winwonwon
windwoundwound
withdrawwithdrewwithdrawn
withholdwithheldwithheld
withstandwithstoodwithstood
wringwrungwrung
writewrotewritten



No comments:

Post a comment